Mistletoe and Palm Trees

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Mistletoe & Palm Trees

It commonly has two or even four embryos, each producing its hypocotyl , that grows towards the bark of the host under the influence of light and gravity, and potentially each forming a mistletoe plant in a clump. Possibly as an adaptation to assist in guiding the process of growing away from the light, the adhesive on the seed tends to darken the bark. On having made contact with the bark, the hypocotyl, with only a rudimentary scrap of root tissue at its tip penetrates it, a process that may take a year or more.

In the meantime the plant is dependent on its own photosynthesis. Only after it reaches the host's conductive tissue can it begin to rely on the host for its needs. Later it forms a haustorium that penetrates the host tissue and takes water and nutrients from the host plant. Species more or less obligate include the leafless quintral, Tristerix aphyllus , which lives deep inside the sugar-transporting tissue of a spiny cactus, appearing only to show its tubular red flowers, [11] and the genus Arceuthobium dwarf mistletoe; Santalaceae which has reduced photosynthesis; as an adult, it manufactures only a small proportion of the sugars it needs from its own photosynthesis, but as a seedling actively photosynthesizes until a connection to the host is established.

Some species of the largest family, Loranthaceae, have small, insect-pollinated flowers as with Santalaceae , but others have spectacularly showy, large, bird-pollinated flowers. Most mistletoe seeds are spread by birds that eat the 'seeds' in actuality drupes.

Of the many bird species that feed on them, the mistle thrush is the best-known in Europe, the Phainopepla in southwestern North America, and Dicaeum of Asia and Australia. Depending on the species of mistletoe and the species of bird, the seeds are regurgitated from the crop, excreted in their droppings, or stuck to the bill, from which the bird wipes it onto a suitable branch.

The seeds are coated with a sticky material called viscin. Some viscin remains on the seed and when it touches a stem, it sticks tenaciously. The viscin soon hardens and attaches the seed firmly to its future host, where it germinates and its haustorium penetrates the sound bark. Specialist mistletoe eaters have adaptations that expedite the process; some pass the seeds through their unusually shaped digestive tracts so fast that a pause for defecation of the seeds is part of the feeding routine.

Others have adapted patterns of feeding behavior; the bird grips the fruit in its bill and squeezes the sticky-coated seed out to the side. The seed sticks to the beak and the bird wipes it off onto the branch. Biochemically, viscin is a complex adhesive mix containing cellulosic strands and mucopolysaccharides. Once a mistletoe plant is established on its host, it usually is possible to save a valuable branch by pruning and judicious removal of the wood invaded by the haustorium , if the infection is caught early enough.

Some species of mistletoe can regenerate if the pruning leaves any of the haustorium alive in the wood. Some mistletoe plants are toxic [17] though their effects are not usually fatal. There are species of mistletoe, varying widely in toxicity; the European mistletoe Viscum Album is more toxic than the American mistletoe Phoradendron serotinum , [18] though concerns regarding toxicity are more prevalent in the US.

Grafting mistletoe

Mistletoe has been used historically in medicine for its supposed value in treating arthritis , high blood pressure , epilepsy and infertility : [20] Conversely, it can cause vasoconstriction and bradycardia , and has been used as an illegal abortifacient [18] Mistletoe is currently used as a complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer though its use is not approved by the FDA and as a veterinary herbal medicine. Mistletoes are often considered pests that kill trees and devalue natural habitats, but some species have recently been recognized as ecological keystone species , organisms that have a disproportionately pervasive influence over their community.

In western North America their juicy berries are eaten and spread by birds notably Phainopepla , or silky-flycatcher while in Australia the mistletoebird behaves similarly. The dense evergreen witches' brooms formed by the dwarf mistletoes Arceuthobium species of western North America also make excellent locations for roosting and nesting of the northern spotted owl and the marbled murrelet.

In Australia the diamond firetail and painted honeyeater are recorded as nesting in different mistletoes. A study of mistletoe in junipers concluded that more juniper berries sprout in stands where mistletoe is present, as the mistletoe attracts berry-eating birds which also eat juniper berries. Thus, rather than being a pest, mistletoe can have a positive effect on biodiversity , providing high quality food and habitat for a broad range of animals in forests and woodlands worldwide.

Pre-Christian cultures regarded the white berries as symbols of male fertility, with the seeds resembling semen.

In Norse Mythology , Loki tricked the blind god Hodur into murdering his own twin brother Balder with an arrow made of mistletoe wood, being the only plant to which Balder was vulnerable. Some versions of the story have mistletoe becoming a symbol of peace and friendship to compensate for its part in the murder. The Romans associated mistletoe with peace, love and understanding and hung it over doorways to protect the household. In the Christian era, mistletoe in the Western world became associated with Christmas as a decoration under which lovers are expected to kiss, as well as with protection from witches and demons.

The custom of kissing under the mistletoe is referred to as popular among servants in late 18th century England: [32] [33] the serving class of Victorian England is credited with perpetuating the tradition. In Germany, the Christmas tradition is that people who kiss under mistletoe will have an enduring love or are bound to marry one another.

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From at least the midth century, Caribbean herbalists of African descent have referred to mistletoe as "god-bush". Mistletoe is the state floral emblem of Oklahoma and the county flower of Herefordshire. One of the earliest references to mistletoe traditions in popular music is the hit ' I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus ', which was originally sung by Jimmy Boyd and has been covered by many singers. In the Asterix franchise, mistletoe is the main ingredient of the 'Magic Potion' that endows the Gauls with superhuman prowess strength, etc. European mistletoe , Viscum album , on an apple tree in Essex, England.

Drooping mistletoe bush Amyema pendula on a Eucalyptus tree. Mistletoe in San Bernardino Mountains. Mistletoe in North Central Texas. Desert mistletoe on a palo verde tree in southern Arizona. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with witch's broom , which is a growth of the host plant's own tissue, rather than a parasite in itself. For other uses, see Mistletoe disambiguation. Mistletoe attached to Eucalyptus host.

Mistletoe berries in Wye Valley. Mistletoe in abundance in Wye Valley. Plants of the World Online.

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 4 April Retrieved November 30, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 , Sinauer Associates, Inc. Barlow A revision of the Viscaceae of Australia.

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