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Vowles, T. Haggett, P. Hennig, B. Carver and S. Fritz eds Mapping wilderness: concepts, techniques and applications of GIS. Harrington, R. CXLVI, no.
18th-century Britain, 1714–1815
Hoover, E. Hoyle, B.
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History of the Industrial Revolution
Lay, M. Lundgren, N. Merlin, P. Rimmer, P.
BBC - History - British History in depth: The Rise of the Victorian Middle Class
Rodrigue, J-P, T. Notteboom and J. Shaw, J. Sultana, S. Schiller, P. Schwab, K. Taaffe, E. Gauthier and M. Tinbergen, J. Shaping the world economy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund. Tolley, R. Ullman, E. Urry, J. Warf, B. One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution started in eighteenth century Europe and not in other parts of the world in the eighteenth century, particularly China , India , and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity  or the Middle Ages. Benjamin Elman argues that China was in a high level equilibrium trap in which the non-industrial methods were efficient enough to prevent use of industrial methods with high costs of capital.
Kenneth Pomeranz, in the Great Divergence, argues that Europe and China were remarkably similar in , and that the crucial differences which created the Industrial Revolution in Europe were sources of coal near manufacturing centers, and raw materials such as food and wood from the New World, which allowed Europe to expand economically in a way that China could not. However, most historians contest the assertion that Europe and China were roughly equal because modern estimates of per capita income on Western Europe in the late eighteenth century are of roughly 1, dollars in purchasing power parity and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2, dollars  whereas China, by comparison, had only dollars.
Also, the average interest rate was about 5 percent in Britain and over 30 percent in China, which illustrates how capital was much more abundant in Britain; capital that was available for investment.
Some historians such as David Landes  and Max Weber credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred. The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Judaeo-Christianity, and Greek thought. The key difference between these belief systems was that those from Europe focused on the individual, while Chinese beliefs centered around relationships between people.
The family unit was more important than the individual for the large majority of Chinese history, and this may have played a role in why the Industrial Revolution took much longer to occur in China. There was the additional difference of outlook. In traditional societies, people tend to look backwards to tradition for answers to their questions. One of the inventions of the modern age was the invention of progress, where people look hopefully to the future. Furthermore, Western European peoples had experienced the Renaissance and Reformation ; other parts of the world had not had a similar intellectual breakout, a condition that holds true even into the twenty-first century.
In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and technical innovation was non-existent. The vast amounts of wealth were stored away in palace treasuries, and as such, were easily moved to Britain. The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries.
Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. It has been pointed out, however, that slavery provided only 5 percent of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution.
agendapop.cl/wp-content/location/jiged-buscar-personas-por.php Alternatively, the greater liberalization of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and utilize emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia.
Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy . Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods. The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe.
This was further aided by Britain's geographical position—an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe.
Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed. It had a dense population for its small geographical size. Enclosure of common land and the related Agricultural Revolution made a supply of this labor readily available. Local supplies of coal , iron, lead, copper , tin , limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry.
Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton , providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry. The stable political situation in Britain from around , and British society's greater receptiveness to change when compared with other European countries can also be said to be factors favoring the Industrial Revolution. In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialization, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.
Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work. Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of , and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England , contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures.
Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two Universities at the time although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities. When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education.
The Unitarians, in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences—areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.
Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved. While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen.
Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the technologies created in the wake of the Scientific revolution of the 17th century. In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry.
Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labor dominated by a pace set by machines. However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the industrial revolution took place as well.
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Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labor, dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization led to the creation of the factory. Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby was operational by However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton - spinning was mechanized. The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city , as workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories.
Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed Cottonopolis, and arguably the world's first industrial city.
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For much of the nineteenth century, production was done in small mills, which were typically powered by water and built to serve local needs. Later each mill would have its own steam engine and a tall chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler. The transition to industrialization was not wholly smooth. For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialization and sometimes sabotaged factories, by throwing a wooden shoe sabot into the mechanical works.
One of the earliest reformers of factory conditions was Robert Owen. In other industries the transition to factory production followed a slightly different course. In , an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods.